Learn Music and Audio Production | iZotope Tips and Tutorials

Why Do We Master Audio?

by Jonathan Wyner, iZotope Education Director and Professional Mastering Engineer July 20, 2015

Explore the future of mastering:

Ozone 9

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This article references previous versions of Ozone. Learn about the latest Ozone and its powerful new features like Master RebalanceLow End Focus, and improved Tonal Balance Control by clicking here.

Why master?

Mastering is that last moment when you can alter/enhance/edit the sound of a recording, and since it's the final step, it is the most critical from the standpoint of assessing the sound. First and foremost, we want our music to sound as good as possible. It means we need someone with the ability to tweak what we have and fully develop the sound to its maximum quality. That's where the mastering engineer comes in.

Here are some things the mastering engineer needs to consider:

  • Is the tone as good as it can be?
  • Is the sense of balance and dynamics as good as it can be?
  • Is the level of the track set well?
  • Are there dropouts or other (unknown or unintended) flaws?
  • Does the sound give the audience pleasure?
  • Does it match the audience's expectations?

In today's world, we "consume" our music in many different ways -- on vinyl, iTunes and CDs and through headphones, car speakers and home playback. It's up to the mastering engineers to match the music to the consumer's experience and listening device -- a step that is vitally important to the recording artist.

What mastering accomplishes

As consumers, we enjoy the final product. It sounds good to us because of the mastering engineer's expertise. In the case of an entire album, the mastering engineer takes all of the disparate pieces and unifies them sonically. In addition, pacing between tracks is coordinated to reflect the mood of the songs. This allows each one to breathe or run on to each other, depending on the desired effect. The sound is enhanced in a way that benefits the record, by creating depth, warmth, openness or fullness. The mastering engineer has some creative input and uses tricks and tools of the trade to enhance the dynamic range by turning up some sections and turning down others, thus reducing the dynamic range to create a louder and clearer master. However, there is only so much that he can do in mastering. It's up to the mixing engineer to do a good job and get the mix as close as possible to the desired sound.

What mastering can and can't do

Mastering doesn't strive to make everything bright and loud, nor does it create the sound. Its goal is to set audio to the optimal level for the distribution format and make sure that the sound fits the style. With a bit of enhancement and polishing, it improves the quality of the sound to the max.
Although mastering can make small adjustment in the impression of the balance among instruments, it is not the same as mixing. Using mastering to remix a track often results in an unclear and distorted sound resulting from extreme application of EQ and compression.

Keep in mind that mastering is the final step and not the time to

  • Raise the pitch of the song by an octave
  • Change the style built into the recording
  • Add a flanging effect to the entire bridge of a song

Think of mastering as putting the icing on the cake to enhance and embellish a good, solid base.

Where is the best place to master at a professional level?

Not everyone has the budget or tools to master to the highest standards. Sometimes technical and financial hurdles make it difficult for everyone to have access to a world-class facility, but that's ok. Things happen. If you're making a demo, something to play for a friend or a quick EP to sell at a last-minute show, you probably don't need the hands and ears of experts.

We're all trying to get better at what we we inform ourselves, and we practice. The way to do that is to follow the best practices of mastering.

Even if you don't have the best room, defining what the best room looks like can help you identify issues in your own room and make improvements:

  • Choose a quiet room so that what you hear is directly from the speakers, and not ambient sound pollution.
  • The room needs to be large enough to allow the low-frequency information to be heard properly.
  • It should support a relatively neutral monitoring system that is phase accurate with low distortion.

You can do it at home if you prepare the location. Make sure you have a good pair of headphones with low-frequency response and listen to a lot of recordings you know and like, paying attention to the way they sound in your listening environment. Having multiple monitoring environments gives you different points of reference (computer speakers, headphones, studio monitors, car speakers, etc.) so that you can find the location that works best for you. Remember that different speaker systems can exaggerate parts of the sound in different ways.

Level Matched Comparison

Level matched A/B listening is an essential part of the mastering workflow. The only way you can really understand what the changes you are making sound like is to hear a "before" and "after" at the same apparent volume. These level matched presets are designed to help you avoid this problem. They work on both the Standard and Advanced versions of Ozone 6 & 7. Included in the ZIP file with the presets is a PDF that can help you install these presets and get started with them quickly.

We’ve also shared a Spotify playlist with you of reference tracks for you to use when mastering tracks. These great sounding-recordings demonstrate wide frequency response, dynamic range, and offer an excellent balance in a variety of genres.

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